This author had a valuable opportunity to address a joint meeting of Rotary Clubs of Lahore, Pakistan, way back in November 2007, on the topic «Challenges of Globalization for the Developing Countries». The elite gathering present there, though from different occupations, had one thing in common – having serious doubts over the utility & desirability of Globalization. It took around an hour’s talk and question-answer session to convince them to the core that they can use the provisions of Globalization to improve their lot like never before.
About 10,000 children went back to school, but the rest ended up in much inferior occupations, including stone breaking and child prostitution. That does not excuse the appalling working conditions in the sweatshops, let alone the cases of forced or unsafe labor, but advocates must recognize the severely limited existing opportunities for the poor and the possible unintended consequences of fair trade policies. Similarly, rural poverty reduction in India may be attributable to the spread of the Green Revolution in agriculture, government antipoverty programs and social movements—not the trade liberalization of the 1990s. In Indonesia the Green Revolution, macroeconomic policies, stabilization of rice prices and massive investment in rural infrastructure played a substantial role in the large reduction of rural poverty. Of course, globalization, by expanding employment in labor-intensive manufacturing, has helped to pull many Chinese and Indonesians out of poverty since the mid-1980s .
Over and over, they would be held hostage to the possibility that their business would up and leave, in order to find cheap labour in other parts of the world; they had to accept restraints on their salaries – or else. Opinion polls registered their strong levels of anxiety and insecurity, and the political effects were becoming more visible. Rodrik foresaw that the cost of greater «economic integration» would be greater «social disintegration». Often they are tempted to withdraw from a multilateral approach and resort to blatant use of bargaining power of the national, economic and political competitive advantage.
More integration will lead to the high social and economic mobility of future generations. The developed countries have higher costs of labor, manufacturing, and distribution. Easy access to almost everything has created an enormous surge in cybercrimes, harassment, and terrorism.
Political globalization refers to changes in the exercise of political power that have resulted from increased transnational engagement. Prior to World War II, the international political system was understood in terms of the so-called Westphalian model. According to this model, political power is exercised primarily through governance at the level of the territorial state.
- Consequently, some feminist philosophers believe that political «globalization from below» provides women and other vulnerable people with an effective means for resisting the inequalities created by economic globalization.
- This is especially problematic because immigrant women are generally «economically, psychologically, and linguistically dependent on their spouses» .
- This graphic, using data from a report by Verisk Maplecroft, looks at the world’s top cities for foreign direct investment and assesses their relative levels of social risk.
Thus, Schutte insists that feminists must engage in methodological practices that de-center their habitual standpoints and foreground perspectives that challenge accepted ways of thinking . Khader extends this call, urging transnational feminists to reject the problematic variants of «Enlightenment liberal» values taken to be central to Western feminism, including individualism, autonomy, and gender-role eliminativism . Such values not only constitute cultural imperialism when imposed on cultural «others,» as Schutte argues, but also can serve to justify militarism, political domination, economic exploitation, and white supremacy in the name of advancing gender interests . Ackerly argues that feminist theory can be used not only to critique feminist ideals and values, but also to develop richer ways to evaluate the work done by women’s human rights organizations. Feminist theory is able to engage with, shape and be shaped by the work being done «on the ground» by NGOs and other groups . Some economists have a positive outlook regarding the net effects of globalization on economic growth.
Developing a robust global supply system for the medico-pharmaceutical industry is another relevant issue. There is, certainly, the risk of cultural imperialism, and the assumption that core nations (and core-nation multinationals) know what is best for those struggling in the world’s poorest communities. Whether well intentioned or not, the vision of a continent of Africans successfully chatting on their iPhone may not be ideal.
Unfortunately, the rules of global trade now prohibit countries from using the strategies successfully employed to develop export industries in East Asia. At the urging of the I.M.F. and Washington, Haiti slashed its tariffs on rice in 1995. Prices paid to rice farmers fell by 25 percent, which has devastated Haiti’s rural poor. In China, the tariff demands of W.T.O. membership will cost tens of millions of peasants their livelihoods. But European farmers get 35 percent of their income from government subsidies, and American farmers get 20 percent. Farm subsidies in the United States, moreover, are a huge corporate-welfare program, with nearly 70 percent of payments going to the largest 10 percent of producers.
First, we show that the initial outbreak centred around the megalopolis (i.e. a compound of metropolises) in the eastern US and the megalopolis centred in the EU. Next, we examine the causes of such a concentration of COVID-19 infections in the two megalopolises. Finally, we discuss the possible impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the future direction of globalisation problems. As Rodrik would later recall, other economists tended to dismiss his arguments – or fear them.
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